Baroque style gained distribution in European (to a lesser extent – the Russian) culture in the 16-17th centuries. Baroque is a very difficult and contradictory direction. Even the term has no unambiguous interpretation. In the Italian root value of an excess, perversity, a mistake is put. Not really it is clear, whether it was the negative characteristic of baroque «from the outside of» this style (first of all baroque estimates by writers of an era of classicism mean) or it is the reflection of authors of baroque which is not deprived of self-irony.
combination of incongruous Different Types Of Style In Literature is
characteristic of Baroque style: on the one hand – interest in
refined forms, paradoxes, sophisticated metaphors and allegories, in
oxymoron, in a verbal game, and with another – deep tragic element
and feeling of doom.
Classicism – the
direction in literature and art which historically succeeded baroque.
The era of classicism lasted more than hundred fifty years – from
the middle of XVII until the beginning of the 19th century.
The idea of rationality, orderliness of the world is the cornerstone of classicism. The person is understood as a being first of all reasonable, and human society – as rationally arranged mechanism.
In the same way and the work of art has to be under construction on the basis of strict canons, structurally repeating rationality and orderliness of the Universe.
The highest manifestation of spirituality and culture classicism recognized Antiquity therefore the ancient art was considered as a role model and final authority.
Pyramidal consciousness is characteristic of classicism Different Types Of Style In Literature
, that is in each phenomenon artists of classicism sought to see the reasonable center which admitted top of a pyramid and represented all building. Let’s tell, in understanding of the state classicists proceeded from the idea of the reasonable monarchy – useful and necessary to all citizens.
Sentimentalism arose in the European culture in the middle of the 18th century, its first signs begin to be shown at the English and is slightly later at the French writers at the end of the 1720th years, by 1740th years the direction already developed. Though the term «sentimentalism» appeared much later and was connected with popularity of the novel of Lorenz Stern «A sentimental travel» (1768) which hero travels around France and Italy, gets to a set sometimes amusing, sometimes touching situations and understands that there are «noble pleasures and noble alarms outside the personality».
Sentimentalism long enough existed in parallel with classicism though in fact was under construction on absolutely other bases. For writers sentimentalists the main value the world of feelings, experiences admits.
The romanticism as the dominating literary direction in the European and Russian literatures existed not really long – about thirty years, but its influence on world culture is enormous.
Historically the romanticism is connected with unfulfilled hopes of the Great French revolution (1789-1793), however communication this not linear, the romanticism was prepared by all course of esthetic development of Europe which was gradually formed by the new concept of the person.
The first associations of romantics appeared in Germany at the end of the 18th century, several years later the romanticism develops in England and France, then in the USA and Russia.
Being «world style», the romanticism represents the phenomenon very complex and contradictory, uniting many schools, multidirectional art searches. Therefore it is very difficult to reduce a romanticism esthetics to some uniform and accurate bases.